Sporting events are no longer the most preferred target for terrorists, according to the Department of Homeland Security. Outdoor events, conferences, festivals, and other events featuring public figures are all vulnerable. And with over a thousand different-level attacks since 2015, it’s no surprise that safety and security are among the top concerns for event professionals.
2nd International Conference On Pulmonary Critical Care And Sleep Medicine
Medical conditions related to sleep disorders and advanced sleep therapy
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Scientific Sessions : Track 1: Novel Insights in Sleep Disorders Sleep disorders are gaining more importance in the society due to various reasons. It has been found that around 50-70 million of the total population of United States experience sleep or wakefulness disorder. Sleep disorder in the young have psychosocial consequences with an impact on work, education and mental health may also underpin unemployment. The use of social media and nightly entertainment in young subjects may blur the clinical picture sometimes hinder a diagnosis of a real sleep disorder. Impact of sleep disturbances is increasingly focused in the society with regard to traffic safety where accidents can be related to reduce mental concentration due to sleepiness. The general outcome of a variety of diseases is increasingly highlighted, like Alzheimer’s, epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like mechanisms Substratesand neurodevelopment of sleep regulation and Relationships and potential mechanisms underlying sleep ,neurologic disorders, complicated nocturnal behaviors, Chronobiology and brain operate, Aging and also the sleeping brain, Metabolomics and Sleep: translational Approaches from Animals to Humans Track 2: Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness A general clinical background is sketched about sleep cycle, circadian rhythms, biological clock , aiming at building a structure for efficient diagnosing. Which is a detailed flat form of Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders concerning imaging methods in sleep medicine highlights the evolving investigation possibilities from research and clinical aspects. It is a volume that we do recommend as a guide and inspiration for the researcher in the fields of Sleep- wake disorders, Sleep Loss and Risk of cardiovascular disease state of the Art for Clinical Practitioners and Video-Polysomnographic analysis (Diagnosis and Scoring) of Sleep connected Movement Disorders and complex Nocturnal Behaviors, Home sleep apnea Testing, Cataplexy Track 3: Insomnia and Circadian Rhythm Disorders Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. The Persons with insomnia have one or more of the following: Difficulty falling asleep or Waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to sleep, Waking up too early in the morning ,Feeling tired upon waking. There are two types of insomnia: primary insomnia and secondary insomnia. Circadian Rhythm disorders are defined as Disturbances in circadian rhythm—the or so 24-hour cycles that are endogenously generated by an organism can be categorized into 2 main groups: transient disorders (e.g., jet lag or a changed sleep schedule due to work, social responsibilities, or illness) and chronic disorders (delayed sleep-phase syndrome, or advanced sleep-phase syndrome [ASPS], and irregular sleep-wake cycle). Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. This session throws a light on Primary Insomnia and secondary insomnia: causes, diagnosis and treatment, Anxiety and Depression: Two of the Most Common Causes of Chronic Insomnia, Delayed and advance sleep-phase syndrome, How Molecular Genetics Can Tell Us How We Wake Up and Why do We Sleep, Fluctuations ain female hormones and Periodic or temporary insomnia,Rhythmic Movements During Sleep, Diagnosis and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders Track 4: Dental Sleep Medicine Dental Sleep Medicine is an area of practice that focuses on the management of sleep-related breathing disorders including snoring and obstructive sleep apnea through the use of oral appliance therapy and upper airway surgery. This session includes key topics like drowsy driving, Orthodontics oral health, and Pediatric Dentistry and many others. According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. Dentists together with sleep physicians are challenged to respond to the health risks and economic impact of untreated sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. This partnership tasks physicians with the recognition and diagnosis of sleep disorders, while dentists provide the treatment. Sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening medical disorder that causes your body to stop breathing during sleep. The muscles in your throat relax and the tongue may fall back and block the airway as you sleep, reducing the amount of oxygen delivered to all of your organs including your heart and brain. People with sleep apnea may snore loudly and stop breathing for short periods of time. The breathing pauses from sleep cause your body to briefly wake while you remain unaware. This can happen hundreds of times per night, and you may wake up feeling unrefreshed. In addition to snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep apnea can cause memory loss, morning headaches, irritability, depression, decreased sex drive and impaired concentration. When left untreated, sleep apnea can lead to hypertension, stroke, heart attack and sudden death while asleep. Sleep apnea patient are often older, obese and have thick necks, but men and women of any age or body type can have sleep apnea. The sleep disorder progressively worsens with age and weight gain. Track 5: Hypersomnias and Neurologic Sleep Disorders These practice parameters pertain to the treatment of hypersomnias of central origin. It serves as both an update of previous practice parameters for the therapy of narcolepsy and as the first practice parameters to address treatment of other hypersomnias of central origin. Based on evidence analyzed in the review paper. Specific disorders addressed by these parameters are narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy, due to medical condition), the idiopathic hypersomnia, recurrent hypersomnia and hyperxsomnia due to medical condition. Central hypersomnias are diseases manifested in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms. The Central hypersomnias includes narcolepsy with or without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia. recurrent hypersomnia, with and without long sleep , behaviorally induced insufficient sleep disorder, Narcolepsy and hypersomnia due to medical conditions, and finally hypersomnia induced by substance intake.Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a subjective tool mostly used for Excessive daytime sleepyness assessment, Whereas the Multiple Sleep Latency Test serves as an objective diagnostic method for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnias. As for symptomatic therapy of EDS, the central nervous system stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate seem to work well in most cases and in narcolepsy and Parkinson’s disease; sodium oxybate also has notable therapeutic value. In 1966, William Dement proposed that patients with excessive daytime sleepiness, but without cataplexy, sleep paralysis, or sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM), should not be considered narcoleptic. In 1972, Roth described a type of hypersomnia with sleep drunkenness that consists of difficulty coming to complete wakefulness, confusion, disorientation, poor motor coordination, and slowness, accompanied by deep and prolonged sleep. The abrupt sleep attacks seen in classic narcolepsy are not present in this disorder. Track 6: Pediatric Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment Pediatric sleep disorders represent highly common phenomena that often interfere with daily patient and family functioning. Interest in and treatment of sleep disturbances in youth continues to increase, but research continues to lag. A recent survey indicated that pediatricians were more likely to prescribe antidepressant medications for insomnia than psychiatrists. Further investigation is needed to develop empirically based detection and treatment of pediatric sleep disorders. Parasomnias result in disruption of an existing state of sleep. Arousals, partial arousals, and sleep-stage transition impositions define this category. An alternative definition of these phenomena describes deviated behavioral or physiologic events that transpire during sleep, specific sleep stages, or sleep-wake transitions. Insomnia or excessive sleepiness is uncommon in parasomnias despite intrusion upon sleep; these symptoms are characteristic of dyssomnia. Most parasomnias affect otherwise healthy youths and commonly subside over the course of adolescence. These disorders are typically viewed as transient developmental phenomena, though children with parasomnias have been found to display higher rates of sleep-onset delay, night awakenings, bedtime resistance, and reduced sleep duration compared to a community control group. Medical-psychiatric–associated sleep disorders comprise the neuropsychiatric conditions that typically include sleep disturbances. This category has been eliminated in DSM-5 but should still be considered by the clinician when evaluating sleep disorders. The medical differential should include the following: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Pervasive developmental disorders, Mental retardation, Down syndrome,Prader-Willi syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Tourette disorder, Nocturnal asthma, Depressive disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mania , Neuromuscular disorders, Nocturnal seizures ,Kleine-Levin syndrome,Chronic fatigue syndrome, Headaches, Blindness with associated sleep disorder. Track 7: Narcolepsy and Sleep over the Lifespan Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. People with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness and intermittent, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the daytime. These sudden sleep attacks may occur during any type of activity at any time of the day. In a typical sleep cycle, we initially enter the early stages of sleep followed by deeper sleep stages and ultimately (after about 90 minutes) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For people suffering from narcolepsy, REM sleep occurs almost immediately in the sleep cycle, as well as periodically during the waking hours. It is in REM sleep that we can experience dreams and muscle paralysis which explains some of the symptoms of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy usually begins between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can become apparent at any age. In many cases, narcolepsy is undiagnosed and, therefore, untreated. The cause of narcolepsy is not known however, scientists have made progress toward identifying genes strongly associated with the disorder. These genes control the production of chemicals in the brain that may signal sleep and awake cycles. Some experts think narcolepsy may be due to a deficiency in the production of a chemical called hypocretin by the brain. In addition, researchers have discovered abnormalities in various parts of the brain involved in regulating REM sleep. These abnormalities apparently contribute to symptom development. According to experts, it is likely narcolepsy involves multiple factors that interact to cause neurological dysfunction and REM sleep disturbances. Symptoms of narcolepsy include: EDS, cataplexy, Sleep paralysis Track 8: Sleep an Inter circuit between: Heart and Brain The observation of our heart and brain while we sleep can provide important information for the diagnosis of widespread, chronic disorders, like insomnia, sleep apnea, hypertension and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This work is a typical multidisciplinary work, which exploits the most modern theories and techniques of information analysis to describe complex behaviors of the human physiological system. The study deals with the heart-brain interactions and brain rhythms during sleep. The study is interesting within the scientific community because the alterations of these dynamics are connected with important chronic disorders with great epidemiological impact. The locution of the session is to know the information of the topics like Substrates like Role of Sleep in psychiatric functioning, Brain function during sleep deprivation and sleep disorders, Sleep loss: behavior and physiology, Sleep, memory and emotion, Memory loss and Dementia, Development,Aging and the Sleeping Brain, Cerebrovascular Sleep Disorders Track 9: Sleep Deprivation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. However, in a subset of cases sleep deprivation can, paradoxically, lead to increased energy and alertness and enhanced mood; it has even been used as a treatment for depression (see below). Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. Complete absence of sleep over long periods has not been seen in humans (unless they suffer from fatal familial insomnia); it appears that brief microsleeps cannot be avoided. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caused death in lab animals. Generally, sleep deprivation may result in: aching muscles, confusion, memory lapses or loss, depression, development of false memory, hallucinations, hand tremor, headaches, malaise, Stye, Periorbital puffiness, commonly known as "bags under eyes" or eye bags, increased blood pressure, increased stress hormone levels, increased risk of diabetes, Increased risk of fibromyalgia, irritability, nystagmus (rapid involuntary rhythmic eye movement),obesity, seizures, temper tantrums in children, yawning, mania etc., the symptoms similar to: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),psychosis and Diabetes Common signs of OSA include unexplained daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and loud snoring with periods of silence followed by gasps. Less common symptoms are morning headaches; insomnia; trouble concentrating; mood changes such as irritability, anxiety and depression; forgetfulness; increased heart rate and/or blood pressure; decreased sex drive; unexplained weight gain; increased urination and/or nocturia , frequent heartburn or gastro esophageal reflux disease; and heavy night sweats. Track 10: Medical/Psychiatric Disorders and Sleep Even though there is no evidence that sleep disorders are a cause of psychiatric disorders. But sleep and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression are closely related. Psychiatric disorders are the leading cause of insomnia, the inability to sleep. In addition to insomnia, people with psychiatric disorders have other sleep problems, including sleepiness during the day, fatigue, and nightmares. Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatric practice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women ,Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Track 11: Sleepiness and Traffic Safety According to the recent studies and investigations the vast major of sleep related breathing cases go untreated and undiagnosed. Institute of Medicine report found that an estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders including sleep apnea. EDS alone costs the economy $150 billion in lost productivity and workplace accidents another $48 billion in medical expenses related to auto accidents involving drowsy driving, An Approximate 1 in 5 car accidents causing serious injury are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. Americans are notoriously sleep deprived, but those with psychiatric conditions are even more likely to be yawning or groggy during the day. Chronic sleep problems affect 50% to 80% of patients in a typical psychiatric practice, compared with 10% to 18% of adults in the general U.S. population. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The brain basis of a mutual relationship between sleep and mental health is not yet completely understood. But neuroimaging and neurochemistry studies suggest that a good night’s sleep helps foster both mental and emotional resilience, while chronic sleep disruptions set the stage for negative thinking and emotional vulnerability. This track through a light on the topics like REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep, Sleep problems in children with autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy, Post-traumatic stress disorder and Insomnia, Bipolar disorder as related to sleep conditions , Substance abuse and chronic insomnia, Sleep and Alzheimer's disease , Treatment of sleep disorders by Traditional Oriental Medicine, Topographic and sex-related differences in sleep spindles in major depressive disorder, Sleep loss and neurologic disorders, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Sleep Disorders, Neurocognitive and Mood Effects of Sleep in Women ,Impotency, Symptoms associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Track 12: Sleep Therapy Approaches Sleep medications can be an effective short-term treatment — for example, they can provide immediate relief during a period of high stress or grief. Some newer sleeping medications have been approved for long-term use. But they may not be the best long-term insomnia treatment. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia may be a good treatment choice if you have long-term sleep problems. You may want to try it if you're worried about becoming dependent on sleep medications, if medications aren't effective or if they cause bothersome side effects. The motto of the session is to understand the knowledge of the topics like Substrates Novel Sleep Therapeutics in Preclinical Models ,CPAP or oral appliance therapy, Tailoring sleep medicine for individual patients, Behavioral treatments of insomnia, comparison of APAP and CPAP, new sleep analysis techniques: clinical aspects, Novel sleep therapeutics and preclinical models, occupational sleep medicine, Sleep therapy for depression, Sleep therapy for bad memories, Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, Future of sleep apnea therapy Track 13: Sleep And Anesthesia There are many similarities exist between natural sleep and anesthesia.During early parts of natural sleep, an individual is difficult to arouse. During general anesthesia, a patient cannot be aroused. Parts of the brain that are responsible for sleep are similar to areas that control general anesthesia.When one type of anesthesia, propofol, is used and there is natural sleep debt, it dissipates. Specifically, a REM sleep deficit was apparent after exposure to isoflurane, sevoflurane or halothane and a NREM sleep deficit is seen after halothane In the United States, nearly 60,000 patients per day receive general anesthesia for surgery. General anesthesia is a drug-induced, reversible condition that includes specific behavioral and physiological traits unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and akinesia — with concomitant stability of the autonomic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory systems. General anesthesia produces distinct patterns on the electroencephalogram (EEG), the most common of which is a progressive increase in low-frequency, high-amplitude activity as the level of general anesthesia deepens. How anesthetic drugs induce and maintain the behavioral states of general anesthesia is an important question in medicine and neuroscience. Substantial insights can be gained by considering the relationship of general anesthesia to sleep and to coma. This track is admixture of the topics like sleep apnea and Anesthesia, obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia and ambulatory surgery, Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management sleep, sleeping pills and anesthesia, Intraoperative management, obstructive sleep apnea anesthesia guidelines, Gastro-oesophageal reflux