Until recently, the opportunity to have a celebrity attend an event, attach themselves to a name-brand or endorse a certain product or idea was untouchable. The thought of paying a person to promote a product was seen as something only Fortune 500 companies could afford. Social media has changed all that with brands and businesses utilizing celebrity influencers to connect directly with their demographics and increase sales and profits.
International Conference and Exhibition on Dual Diagnosis
Research strategies, advanced technologies and innovations in Dual Diagnosis
It’s our pleasure to welcome you to the International Conference and exhibition on Dual Diagnosis, during July 11-12, 2016 at Brisbane, Australia. The conference will be organized around the theme “Research strategies, advanced technologies and innovations in Dual Diagnosis”. Dual Diagnosis-2016 will provide an opportunity for all marketing societies working on Drug addiction and co-occurring psychiatric disorders to talk about their work. Dual Diagnosis- 2016 will congregate renowned speakers, investigators, Nobel laureates, neurology scientists and Drug addiction and Psychiatry researchers from both academia and health care industry will join together to discuss their views and research. The conference will be operated by world class experts in the field of neurology. International symposiums, B2B meetings, workshops will also be organised to discuss the specific topics in the field of Drug addiction, mental illness and Neurological disorders. In Australia, specialist mental health grew by 61% between 2010 and 2014.Australia's mental health system, 29% of state and territory mental health spending was dedicated to caring for people in the community by 2014, the share of total mental health expenditure had increased to 53%. Brisbane is the capital city of Australia and the third most populous city. Brisbane's metropolitan area has 2.3 million populations. According to the Australia government, around 847,000 Australians were living with drug abuse and mental illness or other forms of Psychiatric disorders in 2014. Statistically, 8.3 million or 55% of Australians aged 16–85 will experience drug induced mental health condition like depression, anxiety or drug addiction, according to the 2009 National Survey of Mental Health. March 2010 survey suggests almost 64,000 people have a psychotic illness and are in contact with public specialised mental health services. Scientific Sessions Track 01: Dual diagnosis Dual diagnosis is the condition of suffering from a mental disorder and a co-occurring substance abuse problem. Any patient can have a "dual diagnosis" and treated primarily for an addiction disorder can have a “co-occurring mental disorder”. Like depression and alcoholism. Diagnosing a primary psychiatric illness in substance abusers is challenging as drug abuse itself often induces psychiatric problems, thus making it necessary to differentiate between drug induced and pre-existing mental illness. Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs, can induce symptoms which resembles mental illness, it is tough to differ substance induced psychiatric syndromes and pre-existing mental health problems. Psychiatric disorders among drug or alcohol abusers disappear with prolonged abstinence. Track 02: Epidemiology of dual diagnosis Epidemiology helps to understand the nature and extent of Drug addiction, substance abuse, dependence, and associated risk and protective factors. Around the world, 17.3 million people have drug use disorders. In the year 2012, around 3.3 million deaths, were identified because of alcohol consumption. In 2008, 3.5% to 5.7% of the world's population aged 15-64, used non-prescribed psychoactive medication. Globally cannabis usage is seen in 129-190 million people, next is amphetamines, cocaine and opioids. According to the American Medical Association 13.5 % of the US population has an Alcohol Abuse Disorder. Alcohol Abuse disorders are particularly common among bipolar disorders patients, with a long term prevalence of 50%. Nearly, US$ 200 billion-250 billion would be required to cover all costs related to drug treatment worldwide. Globally, in 2010 between 153 million and 300 million people aged 15-64 had used a banned substance. The estimated 15.5 million-38.6 million problem drug users including those with drug dependence and drug-use disorders remain a particular concern. It is also recognised that there were around 9,000 and 253,000 deaths globally in 2010 as a result of banned drugs, with drug-addiction deaths between 0.5 and 1.3% of all-cause mortality. Track 03: Imaging techniques for dual diagnosis Drug Abuse Disorders can be confused with psychiatric diseases. There are diagnoses for mood disorders and substance-induced anxiety disorders and thus such overlap is complex. Electroencephalography is a non-invasive method to record electrical activity of the brain along the scalp. This is used in cognitive neurology and psychophysiological research. Magneto encephalography is an electrical neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical signals of human brain, using magnetometers. Applications include research into perceptual and cognitive brain functions, regions affected by pathogenesis, determines the function of brain and neurotransmission. Optical coherence tomography is a medical imaging technique that uses light to capture micrometre-resolution, 3D-images from within optical scattering media on biological tissue. Optical coherence tomography is low-coherence interferometry, employing near-infrared light. Nuclear medicine is the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment. The gamma-emitting tracer used in functional brain imaging is hexamethylpropylene amine oxide. 99mTc is a nuclear isomer emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. Attaching it to HMPAO allows 99mTc to take up by brain tissue in a manner proportional to cerebral blood flow assessed with the nuclear gamma camera. The information of magnetic resonance and nuclear imaging studies have on the brain dynamics of addiction has become a primary source of medication strategies. Brain imaging techniques helps scientists to observe drug effects while they are occurring in the brain and compare brain metabolism in drug-abusers and non-abusers. The results established that drug addiction is a disease of the brain, causing mental disorders, and pathways affecting reward and cognition. Track 04: Clinical findings and novel approach for Dual diagnosis Recent clinical studies have shown that between 30% and 60% of drug abusers have mental health diagnoses Depression, Schizophrenia, and Manic illness disorders. Drug Addiction is a typical of disorder involves the interaction of environmental factors and genetic factors to increase the susceptibility of an individual to addictive behaviour. SAMHA scientists are working on the pharmacological and psychosocial models and approaches that involve preclinical studies and clinical findings, to explain the effects of mental health and physical disorders and outcomes in addicted persons. Researchers focus on pregnant women smokes cigarettes. Tobacco usage elevates therapeutic and behavioural therapies in smokers with concurrent psychiatric disorders. Scientists are developing interventions using pharmacological and behavioural treatments in alcohol and opioid dependence. The overall goal of the research is to participate and conduct high-quality multi-site clinical trials for drug abuse and addiction, for the development, and adoption of effective approaches in this field. Track 05: Drug Abuse and Drug dependence Drug abuse is over use drug where the user intakes the substance in huge quantity which is harmful. Alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, cannabis and opioids are commonly used drugs in drug abuse. Pharmacotherapies approved for treatment are replacement therapies such as buprenorphine and methadone. Antagonist medications like disulfiram and naltrexone. Other medications, that are effective includes bupropion and modafinil. Methadone and buprenorphine are effective on opiate addiction. Reports justify that 43.7 million Americans ages 15 experienced mental illness. In the past year, 25.7 million adults had a substance use disorder. In those 8.4 million people had both a mental disorder and substance use disorder, also known as co-occurring mental and drug use disorders. Drug dependence is an adaptive state that results from repeated drug usage, and which results in withdrawal upon stopping drug use. Drug addiction is a different criterion from substance dependence, which is an addictive, unconditional drug use, results severe problems. An addictive drug can functions on rewarding and reinforcing systems. Gene transcription factors is known to be a critical components and general factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioural addiction and drug addictions, but not dependence. Track 06: Addictive Disorders Addictive disorder is a psychiatric chronic disease of brain reward system, motivation, and memory. Leads to inability to control behaviour, leads to habitual changes, and which affects a person from recovery of substance. Reason for Addictive disorder is substance abuse or activity that gives us pleasure and a genetic variance that increases our interest. Addiction is genetically developed in our psychological system, social and environmental factors that lead to excessive and prolonged usage, tolerance and withdrawal and negative consequences. Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a group of diseases that occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol in pregnancy. Problems results in appearance, abnormal heights, less body weight, small head, poor IQ, and vision problems. Antisocial personality disorders are characterized by a pervasive type or violation of the rights of others. There a moral sense, crime, impulsive and aggressive behaviour. The “process addictions” shows different features from “substance addictions”. Those are Internet addiction, Food addiction like Anorexia Nervosa, Sexual addiction, surgical addiction, gambling addiction in common. Track 07: Pathophysiology and Mechanism of drug addiction The primary factor in addiction mechanism is Neurophysiologic reinforcement. Addiction related brain and behaviour disorders, which include psychiatric diagnoses, like schizophrenia, mania, depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Medical recognition of addiction, accept as a medical disorder, and treatment options for addiction is noticed in schizophrenia, manic illness disorder, and major depressive disorder. Similarly, major questions concern of pathology of addiction, including the genetic and environmental factors, neurochemical and neurogenic changes, and the course of the illness. The reward pathway affects our neurological transmissions, and this pathway disturbs instinctual drives also malfunctions. This process is associated with drug, food, sex addiction, and compulsive disorders including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In normal person neurotransmitters, which includes dopamine, that acts "off switch mechanism" fulfil an instinctual drive. Individuals who are disposed to become addicted shown to have a different gene that causes this reward system to malfunction. These people experience the change in level of neurochemical change in reward system when fulfilling an instinctual drive, and there is no "off switch mechanism” they have become seen. Track 08: Drug induced disorders Drug induced disorder is identified by use of one or many drugs results to a clinical impairment or distress. Alcohol-related dementia is a form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive drinking, leads to neurological damage and impaired mental condition. Drugs like amphetamines, or its substitutes, are known to induce "Amphetamine psychosis" when they are abused. In Australian, study of 400 active methamphetamine users, 20% experienced a clinical level psychosis in the last year. In 2013 drug use disorders results in 127,000 deaths up from 53,000 in 1990. The large number of deaths is from Opioid abuse disorders at 51,000. Alcohol use disorders resulted in 139,000 deaths. There are at least 600,000 individuals with opioid dependence in the USA. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has met criteria for opioid dependence. In 1800s and early 1900s, individuals dependent on opioids were primarily developed and from middle socioeconomic groups. However, since the 2000s, minorities and lower socioeconomic groups have been recognised with Opioid dependence. It shows availability of opioids and subcultural factors in opioid use. Therefore, medical professionals are at higher risk for developing opioid-related disorders. It is estimated that 90% of those with opioid dependence have one or more other mental disorders. Depression is commonly identified. Opioid-dependents report suicidal tendency and insomnia. Other substance use disorders anxiety disorders, antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorders are common. Studies shown that disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anti-social personality disorder have genetic variations, and since patients who abuse cocaine have a high incidence of diagnoses, they also genetically deposited to abuse cocaine. Cocaine induced psychotic problems are Hallucination, Delusions, Delirium, and mood disorders. Benzodiazepine dependence is resulting from repeated use of benzodiazepine drugs. It can include both a physical dependence and psychological dependence and is identified by a withdrawal syndrome upon a fall in blood plasma levels of benzodiazepines during dose reduction. Track 09: Prevalence of drug addiction and psychological problems Psychiatric disorders and Addiction occurs together in Dual diagnosis. Over 60% of drug abusers and 50% alcohol users have minimum one serious mental illness, all are diagnosed as mentally ill around 30% abuse alcohol, drugs. Frequent psychiatric problems that occur with addiction are depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia and personality disorders. People suffer from panic disorder or major depressive disorder is more often to abuse alcohol and drugs. Around half of alcoholics have mood disorders and more prevalent to have a major depressive disorder. Among people with Alcohol dependence, 37% meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder. Even tobacco use is linked to psychiatric disorders. In patients with depression, smoking prevalence rates are as high as 70%. Smoking rates are also elevated in people with panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia. Psychiatric problems may results before or after the addiction. Drugs are used for self-medication, to reduce anxiety or depression and addiction leads to psychiatric symptoms. 72% of alcohol abusing males reports that their alcohol use disorder exceeded the onset of a mood disorder. Comorbidity complicates treatment. Addiction cases are high with concurrent psychiatric disorders. Extensively, both disorders must be treated with medications and psychosocial therapies. While research is on-going in this particular area, more knowledge is required on treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Track 10: Psychological Treatment and medication Drug induced mental disorders which are treated using medications are schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Medications are used with other treatments like Psychotherapy. Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia-related disorders are treated using antipsychotic medications and antidepressant medications for depression are commonly used. Antidepressants mainly work by balancing neurotransmitters in brains which affects our emotional responses and mood. Antidepressants work on neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and Dopamine. Bipolar disorder is also commonly named as Manic-depressive illness, treated by mood stabilizers but sometimes, antidepressants and antipsychotics are used along with a mood stabilizer. Disorders in Anxiety are treated using b-blockers, anti-depressants and anti-anxiety medications. Drugs like Methylphenidate, Amphetamine which acts as stimulants are used to for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder occurring in both adults and children. Many types of psychological treatments are proven to be effective. Non-medicated treatments which are highly effective include psychological treatments such as Interpersonal psychotherapy, Cognitive behaviour therapy, Dialectical behaviour therapy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is proven highly effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders and bipolar disorder. Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective especially in treating depression and anxiety. In emotional distress Dialectical behaviour therapy is most effective. Track 11: Self-medication Self-medication is the use of drugs to treat self-diagnosed diseases and their symptoms, or the irregularities and continued use of a prescribed drug for chronic or recurrent disease or symptoms. Self-medication is a human behaviour in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for non-clinical physical or psychological ailments. The most widely self-medicated substances are Over-the-counter drugs and diet supplements. Self-medicating psychology with Psychoactive drugs is using alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behaviour to alleviate symptoms of distress in mental health, anxiety and stress which also includes mental illnesses and psychological trauma, as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms. In global picture 48.1% of respondents reported self-medicating with antibiotics within the past immediate month, medicating with antimalarial by themselves were reported nearly 43.4%, and 17.5% self-medicating with both. Overall, the total pervasiveness of 73.9% reported self-medication with anti-infective agents within the past year. Track 12: Drug De-addiction & Rehabilitation Drug De-addiction is a case of physical independence from a drug, where subject experience a withdrawal syndrome. Approximately half of individuals in the general population who have met criteria for a substance use disorder in their life will achieve recovery. In Australia nearly 30 million people are in recovery. In Europe, remission of alcohol and drug abuse is 78% & 68% respectively. In Asia, statistical evidence said that 55% of remission is observed. Drug rehabilitation is the processes of medical or Psychotherapeutic treatment of dependency for psychoactive substances such as addictive drugs, alcohol and lethal drugs such as amphetamines heroin and cocaine. The overall committed is to enable the patient to cease substance abuse to avoid the financial, legal, psychological, social, and consequences which effects physically. Treatment comprises medication for depression or other disorders, counselling by experts and sharing of experience with other addicts. Some rehab centres include meditation and spiritual wisdom in the treatment process. In the United States, it is estimated that 25-40 million people are in recovery. Track 13: Recreational Drugs and Effects Recreational drug use is use of a drug with the primary intention to alter the state of consciousness in order to create positive emotions. The popular concept of this phenomenon puts it closer to a social behaviour that many places around the world tolerate rather than to serious medical conditions. Drugs commonly considered capable of recreational use include ethanol, cannabis, nicotine, caffeine, and substances within the scope of the United Nations' Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. In 2012 it was estimated that about 3% to 6% of people use non-legal drugs. Domestic and International law enforcement agencies are occupied with interdiction efforts against illegal drug use, production, and circulation. In Australia 86.2% of Australians aged 14 years and over have used cannabis one or more times in their lives. In the 2000s, the number of Americans who had used cannabis increased over twentyfold. Alcoholism is the most widely seen disorder. In 2010, the FBI reported that between the years 2006 and 2009, the number of arrests for marijuana custody, which had been banned throughout the United States. Despite heading that drug use was greatly growing among America's youth during the late 1990s, surveys have suggested that only as much as 4% of the American population had ever smoked marijuana by 2010. Drugs legalization is helpful for medical use of illicit drugs. Website URL: http://dualdiagnosis.conferenceseries.com/